|Rev Esp Endocrinol Pediatr 2017;8(2):15-15 | Doi. 10.3266/RevEspEndocrinolPediatr.pre2017.Oct.430|
|Early nutrition and puberty|
|Enviado a Revisar: 17 Oct. 2017 | _ACCEPTED: 17 Oct. 2017 | En Publicación: 14 Nov. 2017|
|Julie A. Chowen|
|Hosp. Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Inst. de Investigación Biomédica la Princesa, CIBER de Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN). Madrid|
|Correspondencia para Julie A. Chowen, Hosp. Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Inst. de Investigación Biomédica la Princesa, CIBER de Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid|
The age at which an individual initiates puberty is determined by genetic and environmental factors, including both nutritional and social influences. It is suggested that early overnutrition or undernutrition could modify the timing of pubertal onset. Early neonatal overnutrition due to increased food availability modifies the timing of pubertal onset in rats. Leptin may be one factor involved as neonatal overnutrition not only increases leptin levels during the critical period of hypothalamic development, but it also modifies the response to leptin during the peripubertal period. Early overnutrition affects hypothalamic glial cell development and function indicating that, in addition to changes in the development of neuronal circuits, modifications in glial cells may also be involved in the long-term effects of early nutritional changes on metabolism and reproduction. During development, leptin levels can also be modified by factors such as stress. Experimental models of maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life have been shown to induce long-term effects on numerous systems, including reproduction and metabolism. Indeed, we have shown that MD for 24 hours starting on post-natal day (PND) 9 not only reduces body weight throughout life, but it also affects the age at which external signs of puberty appear in rats. During the period of MD, there are changes in cell turnover, neurotrophic factors, and markers of neuronal and glial maturation in the hypothalamus, indicating effects on hypothalamic development. The fact that this experimental manipulation abolishes the physiological neonatal leptin surge, suggests that changes in the levels of this hormone during a critical period of development could participate in the observed effects on pubertal onset. Indeed, leptin treatment of neonatal rats also modifies the timing of pubertal onset, in both control and MD rats (1-4).
This conference will review what we have observed to date regarding the effects of MD and neonatal overnutrition on hypothalamic development and pubertal onset. The fact that these experimental paradigms differentially affect males and females will also be stressed.
Disclosure: no potential conflict of interest in relation to this presentation.
1.- Viveros MP, Llorente R, Díaz F, Romero-Zerbo SY, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, et al. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels. Horm Behav. 2010;58(5):808-19.[Pubmed]
2.- Castro-González D, Fuente-Martín E, Sánchez-Garrido MA, Argente-Arizón P, Tena-Sempere M, Barrios V, et al. Increased prepubertal body weight enhances leptin sensitivity in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y neurons before puberty onset in female rats. Endocrinology. 2015; 156(4): 1272-82.[Pubmed]
3.- Mela V, Díaz F, Vázquez MJ, Argente J, Tena-Sempere M, Viveros MP, Chowen JA. Interaction between neonatal maternal deprivation and serum leptin levels on metabolism, pubertal development, and sexual behavior in male and female rats. Biol Sex Differ. 2016 Jan 11;7:2. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-015-0054-6.
4.- Argente-Arizón P, Ros P, Díaz F, Fuente-Martin E, Castro-González D, Sánchez-Garrido MÁ, et al. Age and sex dependent effects of early overnutrition on metabolic parameters and the role of neonatal androgens. Biol Sex Differ. 2016 May 18;7:26. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-016-0079-5.